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Ingredients





Skin Anatomy and Physiology Acne Ingredients Cosmetics
Dictionary of Skin Care Terms Skin Care Advice Skin Problems
The Sun & Your Skin Skin Care News  

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G

g

The abbreviation for a gram.

gainma-linolen ic-acid

gainma-linolen ic-acid

A fatty acid found in evening primrose oil, black currant seeds, borage oil and mother’s milk. Also see evening primrose oil.

gardenia (Gardenia florida)

This fruit is known in China as chih-tzu. It’s an antiinflammator and is used for skin problems in herbal formulas. See chin g-s hang.

gel

A colloidal suspension of solid and liquid particles that exists in a solid or semisolid state.

gelatin

Purified protein from animal sources used as a thickener and film-forming agent.

genes

The unit of a chromosome which transfers an inherited characteristic from parent to offspring.

Germalliland Gerniall 115

When used in concentrations of 0.5oo, these toxic antibacterials inhibit and sometimes kill both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of Germall II is better than Germal 115. Neither of the Germall products have a good antifungal activity and must be combined with PHB esters (parabens,). In cosmetics, they’re used at concentrations of 0.100 to 0.500, in combination with parabens. These chemicals caused acute oral toxWitv to lab rats at 5.2 mg/kg, and to mice at 7.2 mg/kg. Rabbits had severe edema and erythemas (redness and irritation) on abraded skin. Mice had fetotoxic reactions at 300 mg/kg.

Germall II is diazolidinyl urea and Germall 115 is imidazolidinyl urea. These chemicals are compatible with anionics, non jonics and proteins. Germall 115 releases formaldehyde at over 100 C. Other trade names are Biopure 100 and Euxyl K 200.

germicide

A germ-killing substance.

g/kg

Grams

Grams per kilogram.

kilogram.

GLA

Abbreviation for gamma-linolenic acid. See evening primrose oil.

evening primrose oil.

glucose glutamate

This ester of glucose and glutarnic acid (an amino acid) is used as an humectant.

humectant.

glutaraldehyde

This dialdehyde compound is an oily liquid stabilized with ethanol or hydroquinone. Used in cosmetics at concentrations of 0.02% to 0.2% (of a 5000 solution), ifs a toxic chemical that causes contact dermatitis in humans. The lethal dose in lab rats is 60 mg/kg. Its trade names are Alhydex and Ucarcide.

glycereth

This polyethylene glycol ether of glycerine is a synthetic form of glycerine.

glycerin, glycerine or glycerol

All three names refer to a sweet, syrupy alcohol that can be produced synthetically from propylene alcohol or naturally derived from vegetable oils. Glycerin has been used in cosmetics for thousands of years as a solvent, plasticizer, humectant, emollient and lubricant.

glyceryl coconate, dilaurate, erucate, hydroxystearate, nionoslearate, myrisa~ate, oleate, ricinoleate, sesquioleate, stearate, trimyristate, dilaurate, erucate, hydroxystearate, nionoslearate, myrisa~ate, oleate, ricinoleate, sesquioleate, stearate, trimyristate, etc.

These esters of fatty acids combined with glycerine are generally used in the same ways that glycerine is. They’re largely synthetic chemicals with perhaps a drop or two of some natural fatty acid in them.

Glyceryl oleate is used as an emulsifier ; glyceryl stearate SE acts as a texturizer in pasta products and as an opacifving agent in shampoos, creams and lotions. They can cause allergic reactions and should be avioided

glyceryl mono glyceryde

This distilled fatty acid (90% monoglyceride) is a good-grade antimicrobial agent that’s approved as an emuls~fier in foods by the FDA. It’s also used as a base lotion for pharmaceuticals and at concentrations of 0.5% in deodorants, soaps, powders, medicated shampoos, hand and foot care products, dental and gum care products. It causes some allergic reactions.

The fatty acid content gives this chemical a waxy, paste-like appearance. It’s soluble in water after melting at 86 C. Compatible with most emulsifiers, it’s inactivated by sodium lauryl sarcosine and some nonzonics. It’s active against gram-positive bacteria, but not against gram-negative bacteria (the harmful sort)—except when combined with EDTA, lactic acid, parabens, etc. Its trade name is Lauricidin.

glycine

This amino acid may be produced naturally (from the hydrolysis of proteins) or synthetically (from the reaction of chioroacetic acid and ammonia). It’s used as a texturizer.

glycogen

Because this animal starch can be quickly converted to protein, it’s the principal form in which carbohydrates are stored in animal tissues. Glycogen (often obtained from oyster shells) is used in hair care products to help damaged hair.

glycol stearate

This ester of glycol and stearic acid is used as an opacifying agent, thickener and pearlizing substance in shampoos, lotions and detergents (both cream and liquid). It contains up to 4% ethylene gl~col and can’t be considered natural. It can cause allergic reaction and should be avoided.

glycolic

A semi-thick to light oil extract of a plant.

glycolic acid

This organic acid occurs in unripe grapes and sugar beets, but it’s usually manufactured from chloroacetic acid. Glycolic acid is used as a skin care treatment in exfoliation creams and masks, and as an acidifier.

glycols

Glycerine

Glycerine is combined with alcohols to form these syrupy humectants. They can be vegetable or animal, natural or synthetic. When used in makeup, they help the foundation adhere to the skin.

Some glycols, like diethylene glycol and carbitol, are dangerous; they’re absorbed into the skin and can cause allergic reactions. Ethylene glycol has caused bladder stones and is a suspected carcinogen in bladder cancer. Propylene glycol is considered safe by the FDA and is used widely to formulate cough syrups and other drugs, but it’s still a petrochemical and should be avoided.

Avoid products whose labels don’t make it clear that they’re using vegetable glycerine and simply say glycol without the source listed.

glycosides

Widely present in plants, glycosides are a very important group of natural products and constitute an important source of drugs like digitalis, sennosides, ginseng and rutin. In cosmetics, they’re used as moisturizing agents for the hair and skin.

Glycosides contain sugar and, when hydrolyzed, yield one or more sugars. They contain two components: glycone and aglycone. Glycone is the sugar compound (e.g. glucose, arabinose, xylose) and aglycone is the nonsugar compound (e.g. sterols, tannins, carotenoids, quinones).

glycyrrhizic acid

An organic acid derived from licorice root.

goa

See chrysaro bin.

gram

.X unit of weight in the metric system. There are about 28 grams to the ounce.

grapefruit seed oil

The extracted oil of grapefruit seeds is a safe natural preservative used in cosmetics. It works in both oil and water products, and has been combined with various herbal and vitamin extracts.

One processor of this extract (Dr. Jacob Harich of Chemie Research and Manufacturing) claims that it reduces bacterial infections in livestock when used as a feed additive, thus eliminating the need for antibiotics. He also claims good results using it to treat herpes (though his research into this use has been confined to South America).

GRAS list

A list, compiled by the FDA, of ingredients that are "generally recognized as safe" for use in foods, drugs and/or cosmetics.

green soap

This soap, made from linseed oil and the hydroxides of sodium and potassium, is used in the treatment of skin diseases, especially acne. It’s often found in a soft state or as a tincture.

green tea

The leaf of the white came Ilia (Came Ilia sin ensis,~ is used to brew the common tea we drink. If the leaves are fully fermented before being dried, the resul t is called black tea, far-and-away the most common type in the U.S. and Europe. If the leaves aren’t fer before being dried (or are only slightly ferme the result is called green tea; it’s widely used in Japan, China and India.

Green tea has recently been discovered to have many nutritional and healthful qualities—for example, it contains 20 times the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. X’Vhen used in facial creams and lotions, green tea increases the effect of sunscreens, and it’s been found to prevent skin cancer from UV rays as well.

A special green tea is used in some cosmetics for this purpose. Called matcha, it’s high in methylxanthines, which are believed (by the National Cancer Institute) to prevent skin cancer. Matcha can be traced back to the Sung dynasty in China, over two thousand years ago.

Green tea also helps prevent irritation of the skin caused by glycolic acid and other irritating chemicals that are used in skin peels and facial masks. Green tea even has anti-cellulite properties.

guaiazulene

Another name for azulene.

guanine

This natural pearlizing agent is made from fish scales or ground-up pearls.

gwns (acacia, arabic, benzoin, guar. damar, karaya, locust bean, rosin and tragacanth,)

Gums PVP/PVA copolymers. Some of the gums used as hair sets and natural thickeners are acacia, tragacanth, quince seed and locust bean.

gum resins

Also known as oleogums, gum resins (such as myrrh gums, gamboge and asafetida) are used in some natural cosmetics.

 


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Skin Anatomy and Physiology Acne Ingredients Cosmetics
Dictionary of Skin Care Terms Skin Care Advice Skin Problems
The Sun & Your Skin Skin Care News  


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