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Appropriate Barrier Repair Ingredients in SkinCare
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nyonyakay
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Tue Feb 20, 2007 4:15 pm      Reply with quote
The New York Society of Cosmetic Chemists posted this article entitled "Skin Lipids, the Lipid Barrier and Barrier Repairing Ingredients" : http://www.nyscc.org/news/archive/tech0102.htm

Basically, it says that surrounding every skin cell in the upper most layer of the skin is a layer of fat-like substances, which is called the lipid barrier, which is a water-loss barrier.

The simple act of washing your face or showering can remove much of this protective barrier from your skin.

The components of that barrier are as follows:

Polar Lipids
Cholesteryl Sulfate (like cholesterol esters sometimes used in skincare)
Neutral Lipids
Free Sterols (like plant phytosterols sometimes used in skincare)
Free Fatty Acids (lots of the natural carrier oils we use contain fatty acids)
Triglycerides (like Caprylic/ Capric Triglyceride sometimes used in skincare)
Sterol/wax esters (like jojoba oil)
Squalane (like olive squalane)
n-Alkanes
Sphingolipids (like lecithin)
Glucosylceramides
Ceramides (I think everyone has heard of this)

The article goes on to say, "Topically applying the correct lipids will assist in maintaining the structure of the lipid barrier and improving the health and beauty of the skin."

Does your moisturiser contain any of the above emollients?
Wild Cat
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Tue Feb 20, 2007 4:20 pm      Reply with quote
Thanks for posting. Very informative!

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nyonyakay
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Tue Feb 20, 2007 4:26 pm      Reply with quote
Thanks, Wild Cat.

There is so much more I would like to learn myself.

Can any forum members who have backgrounds in chemistry please chime in?
athena123
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Tue Feb 20, 2007 4:42 pm      Reply with quote
Does this article mean that the primary purpose of moisturizer is to restore the lipid barrier?

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nyonyakay
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Tue Feb 20, 2007 4:45 pm      Reply with quote
I think that if you add active ingredients to the moisturiser such as anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatories, peptides, etc., to the extent that these are absorbed in your skin, you bump up the bio-activity of the moisturiser.

A discussion around the variables of absorption in skincare would be the topic of a whole new thread in itself.
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 1:30 pm      Reply with quote
nyonyakay, now you are getting quite technical, and I like this topic!

It is absolutely true that most of the skin lotions, creams, and "moisturizers" a designed to replace skin lipids that may have been washed off or lost during your daily routine. The list of materials that comprise the skin lipid barrier is very extensive and quite accurate. Many of the emollient oils that we put in creams and lotions are made to replace lost skin lipids. Let me give you an example:

The fatty acid profile of the skin lipid barrier is approximately:

Myristic Acid (C14:0): 2.1 - 4%
Palmitic Acid (C16:0): 20 - 30%
Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1): 3.8 - 8%
Stearic Acid (C18:0): 11.2 - 13%
Oleic Acid (C18:1): 17 - 30.8%
Linoleic Acid (C18:2): 4 - 15.1%
Linolenic Acid (C18:3): 0.3 - 2.1%

(where the "C" stands for carbon and the numbers stand for the number of carbons in the chain length followed by the number of double bonds in the chain)

Now for example, Emu Oil and Macadamia Oil have VERY similar fatty acid profiles. These materials would mix very well with your own skin lipids, and replace any lost skin lipids if you used products with these oils in them. Macadamia Oil fatty acid profile:

Myristic: 0.9%
Palmitic: 8.4%
Palmitoleic: 19.5%
Stearic: 3.3%
Oleic: 58.1%
Linoleic: 2.7%
Linolenic: 0.2%
(Note: because of this fatty acid profile, you will notice that Macadamia Oil seems to penetrate the skin rather quickly. No surprise here once you know the chemistry).

There are also other cosmetic ingredients that are very similar to the other components of skin lipids. These too can be formulated into creams and lotions to help "refat" the skin such as squalane, ceramides and a variety of tryglicerides.

I would have to believe that most of the best moisturizers, lotions and creams on the market have at least one if not more of these ingredients to try to bring your skin lipid barrier back to normal levels after washing, or especially after alcohol has been applied to the skin, such as an astringent or a hand sanitizer which can strip the skin lipid barrier quickly and very extensively. Ever notice how your hands feel dry and look "white" after applying hand sanitizer? Our company is currently making, and testing an 'emollient hand sanitizer' that contains jojoba emollients to refat the skin WHILE it is killing the bacteria.

John

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nyonyakay
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 2:16 pm      Reply with quote
Hi John, thank you for the informative post.

Now this begs a question for me: since Macadamia Oil so closely resembles our skin lipids and absorbs well into the skin, is it "trans-dermal"?

Or is this a term made up by the skincare industry?

I have always believed (or been led to believe somewhere along the way) that squalane is by far the most "trans-dermal" emollient, and I use it in my potions on this basis - in the fervent hope that it will enhance absorption of the active ingredients.

In your opinion, what are the most trans-dermal emollients?
Wild Cat
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 2:26 pm      Reply with quote
I thought jojoba oil is most similar to our skin lipids. It is not? Confused So what is then? Think

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nyonyakay
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 2:30 pm      Reply with quote
Wild Cat, I think John C. Hill has explained it in his above post.
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 2:47 pm      Reply with quote
nyonyakay,
I know John mentioned Emu Oil and Macadamia Oil. I guess I was confused about whether most similar to our skin lipid means best penetration... Confused

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nyonyakay
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 2:58 pm      Reply with quote
WildCat, this is the basis of my earlier post to him above. Is there such a thing as "trans-dermal" emollients, or is that concept completely at odds with the notion of skin barrier compatibility?

nyonyakay wrote:
Hi John, thank you for the informative post.

Now this begs a question for me: since Macadamia Oil so closely resembles our skin lipids and absorbs well into the skin, is it "trans-dermal"?

Or is this a term made up by the skincare industry?

I have always believed (or been led to believe somewhere along the way) that squalane is by far the most "trans-dermal" emollient, and I use it in my potions on this basis - in the fervent hope that it will enhance absorption of the active ingredients.

In your opinion, what are the most trans-dermal emollients?
catski
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 3:02 pm      Reply with quote
Wild Cat wrote:
nyonyakay,
I know John mentioned Emu Oil and Macadamia Oil. I guess I was confused about whether most similar to our skin lipid means best penetration... Confused



Yes, these are all new terms to me too, so I'm reading with confused interest hoping it will all gradually become clearer to me!

It sounds like you got it right, WildCat.. "similar to our skin lipid means best penetration..."

( I think!)
nyonyakay
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 3:06 pm      Reply with quote
[quote="catskiIt sounds like you got it right, WildCat.. "similar to our skin lipid means best penetration..."

( I think!)[/quote]

Neutral Rather than being swayed by the weight of numbers of opinions, I'm holding out for the scientific explanation.
John C. Hill
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 3:44 pm      Reply with quote
The ingredient that I use the most in order to get deep skin penetration is "ethoxydiglycol". I use it in my self-tanning formulas to drive the DHA or other ingredients deep into the skin.

In the past, the "old school" method was DMSO. However, that material got a bad rap when impure DMSO was being sold and the impurities were making it into the users bodies leading to sickness.

Jojoba Oil is a "wax ester". It is not a triglyceride oil and so it will have unique properties unlike any other triglyceride oil like Macadamia or Sunflower, etc. Jojoba oil will have a wax ester composition, not a fatty acid composition. However, I will say that Jojoba is quite good for the skin with fairly good penetrating properties as well. I would recommend Jojoba Oil for skin care products for sure.

John

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Thu Feb 22, 2007 3:52 pm      Reply with quote
catski wrote:
Wild Cat wrote:
nyonyakay,
I know John mentioned Emu Oil and Macadamia Oil. I guess I was confused about whether most similar to our skin lipid means best penetration... Confused



Yes, these are all new terms to me too, so I'm reading with confused interest hoping it will all gradually become clearer to me!

It sounds like you got it right, WildCat.. "similar to our skin lipid means best penetration..."

( I think!)


I'm with you on this, I was reading the posts and trying to comprehend all the science jargon between the lines but I was unsuccessful. Glad Emu Oil was mentioned, may look into Macadamia oil.

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Wild Cat
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Thu Feb 22, 2007 6:14 pm      Reply with quote
nyonyakay wrote:
WildCat, this is the basis of my earlier post to him above. Is there such a thing as "trans-dermal" emollients, or is that concept completely at odds with the notion of skin barrier compatibility?

nyonyakay wrote:
Hi John, thank you for the informative post.

Now this begs a question for me: since Macadamia Oil so closely resembles our skin lipids and absorbs well into the skin, is it "trans-dermal"?

Or is this a term made up by the skincare industry?

I have always believed (or been led to believe somewhere along the way) that squalane is by far the most "trans-dermal" emollient, and I use it in my potions on this basis - in the fervent hope that it will enhance absorption of the active ingredients.

In your opinion, what are the most trans-dermal emollients?


Yes, so I had the same question as you and I am still very confused about it. Think Think Think

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Thu Feb 22, 2007 7:35 pm      Reply with quote
Hello everyone - My experience with oils is quite limited, so you may want to take this with a grain of salt. Anyway, I was seduced by the raves about emu and tried using it off and on for at least a year. It always sat on my skin like an oil slick, and the scent was off-putting so I finally stopped using it. In the meantime I tried Decleor Iris oil, which of course is a blend. The scent is definitely better and it's a lighter-textured oil, but doesn't sink in as well as I'd like either.

The idea of emu appealed to me in the first place because I need a simple product in order to add an emollient layer, or over eye creams, etc. when I'm going through periods of dryness. And while I've really been enjoying Caudalie Radiance Serum which contains squalane (almost finished with my third bottle), it includes active ingredients and so isn't exactly the supplement I've needed. I recently purchased some macadamia oil after reading what John had to say about it months ago. And I'm quite pleased to report that it sinks in very nicely and is just what I've been hoping for!!! I'm only sorry I didn't buy it sooner!!!

So thank you John -- I'm very happy to have this on hand! BTW, since emu just sat on my skin I never considered using it during the day, but macadamia oil works well for me day or night.
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 1:20 am      Reply with quote
Thanks m.april I think I'll give that a go too.

I'm always sampling bio oils and what I have found is no-one person is the same. Maybe we all need our own personal blend for our own deficiencies and climate so I wouldn't get put off if one recommendation doesn't work out.

...and mixing oils is interesting; rosehip's terrible for me on its own, but mixed with squalene it sinks right in and neither will on their own. Curious?

I've been using straight bio-oils for a while now, but I'm wondering if there is any advantage to a manufactured moisturiser which I'm missing out on or does emu cover all the bases?
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 8:24 am      Reply with quote
m.april wrote:
Hello everyone - My experience with oils is quite limited, so you may want to take this with a grain of salt. Anyway, I was seduced by the raves about emu and tried using it off and on for at least a year. It always sat on my skin like an oil slick, and the scent was off-putting so I finally stopped using it. In the meantime I tried Decleor Iris oil, which of course is a blend. The scent is definitely better and it's a lighter-textured oil, but doesn't sink in as well as I'd like either.

The idea of emu appealed to me in the first place because I need a simple product in order to add an emollient layer, or over eye creams, etc. when I'm going through periods of dryness. And while I've really been enjoying Caudalie Radiance Serum which contains squalane (almost finished with my third bottle), it includes active ingredients and so isn't exactly the supplement I've needed. I recently purchased some macadamia oil after reading what John had to say about it months ago. And I'm quite pleased to report that it sinks in very nicely and is just what I've been hoping for!!! I'm only sorry I didn't buy it sooner!!!

So thank you John -- I'm very happy to have this on hand! BTW, since emu just sat on my skin I never considered using it during the day, but macadamia oil works well for me day or night.


I completely agree with you about macadamia nut oil. I've got it based on John's recommendation too, and I like it so far. Penetrate really well and fast, I'd say even better than emu oil, and I never had a problem with emu. Also, the smell of macadamia nut oil is to die for. Smile So, thank you, John. Smile I think I 'll make a mix emu/macadamia.
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 8:35 am      Reply with quote
I give...where did you get the macademia oil?
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 9:05 am      Reply with quote
http://www.gardenofwisdom.com/catalog/item/3987807/3778754.htm

If you'd like to buy smaller quantity, just send Markey (the owner) an e-mail.
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 9:09 am      Reply with quote
jumpingball wrote:
http://www.gardenofwisdom.com/catalog/item/3987807/3778754.htm

If you'd like to buy smaller quantity, just send Markey (the owner) an e-mail.


It sounds like macademia oil might over-power other actives? Is macademia oil best applied straight and shouldn't blend with other oil and actives? Confused

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Fri Feb 23, 2007 9:22 am      Reply with quote
Wild Cat wrote:
jumpingball wrote:
http://www.gardenofwisdom.com/catalog/item/3987807/3778754.htm

If you'd like to buy smaller quantity, just send Markey (the owner) an e-mail.


It sounds like macademia oil might over-power other actives? Is macademia oil best applied straight and shouldn't blend with other oil and actives? Confused


I'm not an expert, but I think you can go either way - use it alone or blend it. Considering actives, I guess it's the same as with emu oil. Macadamia oil enhances penetration of actives, and takes them deeper to the skin, so they'll work better. So, you may use less amount of actives with the same result or the same amount with better results. Smile
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Fri Feb 23, 2007 9:30 am      Reply with quote
jumpingball wrote:
Wild Cat wrote:
jumpingball wrote:
http://www.gardenofwisdom.com/catalog/item/3987807/3778754.htm

If you'd like to buy smaller quantity, just send Markey (the owner) an e-mail.


It sounds like macademia oil might over-power other actives? Is macademia oil best applied straight and shouldn't blend with other oil and actives? Confused


I'm not an expert, but I think you can go either way - use it alone or blend it. Considering actives, I guess it's the same as with emu oil. Macadamia oil enhances penetration of actives, and takes them deeper to the skin, so they'll work better. So, you may use less amount of actives with the same result or the same amount with better results. Smile


So I guess there would be no use to add some chemical absorption enhancers with macademia oil and emu oil? Since it already can penetrate actives deeper to the skin... Confused

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Fri Feb 23, 2007 9:31 am      Reply with quote
One the one hand, if I don't like it, I can use it as a cooking oil Confused One the other, I can't get past using a cooking oil on my face!!
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