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Skin Anatomy and Physiology Acne Ingredients Cosmetics
Dictionary of Skin Care Terms Skin Care Advice Skin Problems
The Sun & Your Skin Skin Care News  

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D

damar gum

This gum, which is extracted from an East Indian pine of the genus Agath is, is used largely in printing inks and varnishes. Also see gums.

D&C

When this abbreviation precedes the name of a color, it means that the FDA has certified it as safe for use in drugs and cosmetics, but not in food. (The term Ext. D&C means the color can only be used externally, and not around the eyes or inside the mouth.)

D&C colors are usually synthetic, coal tar colors; they’re toxic and should be avoided. Compare FD&C, and see colors and certified colors.

dandruff

Clumps of cells which form on the scalp and flake off are called dandruff. Although the exact reasons for it aren’t known, a good natural shampoo, conditioner and hot oil treatment can help.

Dantoin 685

This preservative is a nonionic compound containing formaldehyde (19%) and N-acetal. Used in shampoos (at concentrations of 0.2%) and in deodorants, it’s highly toxic, as are all formaldehyde solutions. Since the formaldehyde is split off at a pH of 6 in water solutions, Dantoin 685 actually amounts to free formaldehyde.

Dantoin 685 is stable at low temperatures. It’s supplied as crystals that are soluble in water and alcohol. The cosmetics industry can list it on labels as DMDM hydantoin, but this doesn’t tell consumers who want to avoid formaldehyde that this is formaldehyde. See formaldehyde.

formaldehyde.

DEA (diet hanolamine)

(diet hanolamine)

This liquid amino alcohol, which is similar to TEA (triethanolamine), is used to alcoholize cosmetics. You should avoid it, since it may be contaminated with nitrosamines. See nit rosamines and alkyl sulfates.

alkyl sulfates.

DEA-lauryl sulfate

This synthetic anionic surfactant is used extensively in shampoos. It does not come from coconuts, and may be contaminated with nitrosamines. Also see alkvloamides.

DEA-linoleate

This salt of linoleic acid plus DEA is used as a

cleanser. It may be contaminated with nitrosamines.

Also see alkyloamides.

decoction

A diluted aqueous extract prepared by boiling a botanical with water for a specific period of time, then straining or filtering it.

decyl alcohol

This colorless or light yellow liquid is a primary alcohol that may be natural (made from coconut oil) or synthetic. It’s used in surfactants and perfumes as an emuls~fier and emollient.

emollient.

dehydroacetic acid

This synthetic crystalline acid, used as a fungicide, bactericide and plasticizer, is toxic.

demulcent

In herbology, a substance that soothes irritated tissues, particularly mucous membranes.

deodorant

In cosmetics, a product that reduces perspiration odor. There are natural deodorants containing herbs like marigold and vitamin E. Note that deodorants don’t stop perspiration; that’s the role of an antiperspirant.

depilatories

Although hair is a strong fiber, these extremely alkaline cosmetics destroy it by breaking the chemical bonds that hold it together. After using any hair removal method, a moisturizer should be applied to soothe the skin

depressant

A substance that reduces nervous activity.

depura tive

In herbology, a detoxification substance that purifies the blood or an organ.

derivative

A particular substance or group of substances that is removed from a "donor substance.

dermabrasion

In this process, skin is removed (in varying amounts and depths) by means of mechanical brushes or sandpaper. It’s used to remove scars and as a final treatment for acne hypertrophica.

dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction, dermatitis is often caused by coming in contact with a cosmetic product that has numerous synthetic ingredients. Certain people may be allergic to natural substances as well.

dermatologist

One who understands and has been trained to treat diseases of the skin, especially with drugs.

dermis

A sensitive layer of skin, protected by the epidermis, that’s made up of connective tissue, muscle and nerves. It’s also called the "corium" or true skin."

desiccant

A drying substance. Also called an exsiccant.

detergent

These synthetic soaps may be made with a variety of chemicals, and are frequently not biodegradable. Known in the trade as syndets (synthetic detergents)

and surfactants, they’re harmful to the environment. Also see alkyloarnides.

diammonium citrate

This synthetic chemical, used as a preservative, sequestrant and astringent in cosmetics, should be avoided.

diaphoretie

In herbology, a substance that produces perspiration.

dibromopropamidine

This benzamidine compound is a toxic chemical. Lab mice were murdered with intravenous doses of 10 mg/kg and with subcutaneous injections of 300 mg/kg. Its trade name is Brolene.

dibutyl phthalate

This colorless, oily ester, used as a plasticizer and solvent in cosmetics, is a synthetic chemical that should be avoided.

di-calcium phosphate dihyd rate

An abrasive commonly used in toothpaste.

dichloro-M-xylenol

This toxic phenolic compound is used as a substitute for phenol in baby cosmetics and soaps, at concentrations of 0.1%

dichiorophene

Like other phenolic compounds, dichlorophene can accumulate in the stratum corneum and is potentially neurotoxic. The European Economic Community suggests cosmetic concentrations of 0.2% in soaps (with a maximum concentration of 1%). When used in a cosmetic, the label must warn: contains dichiorophene. Its trade names are DCP, GA and Preventol GD.

diet for hair & skin

Obviously, what you eat has plenty to do with how you look, as well as how you feel. The choice of a sensible diet can do wonders for your skin, giving it a healthy glow and texture that no cosmetic can. Conversely, dull-looking skin and dry, lackluster hair are often due to a bad diet, an excess of chemicalized foods, or synthetic chemicals in cosmetics.

A diet heavy in starches and sugar is acid-forming in the body; this contributes to premature aging of the body. Salt is one of the worst chemicals you can use in your diet. The skin already contains a large amount of salt, which is eliminated in perspiration. Salt in your diet only increases this problem and causes wrinkles and dry skin. It should be avoided.

To keep your cells hydrated, you should drink about six glasses of water a day. Drink pure water or distilled water, not tap water. You can also get your xvater in an herb tea or vegetable broth.

Fresh vegetables and fruits, whole grains, beans and herbal teas are the best sources of vitamins and minerals. A lack of vitamins A and C, the B vitamin riboflavin and trace minerals leads to rough, scaly, wrinkled skin and a muddy, pasty complexion. Proteins are also important, as are the essential fatty acids, both of which retard the appearance of wrinkles.

Vitamin A keeps hair and skin soft and supple, and the nails strong. Spinach and carrots are rich in it.

Vitamin C is needed to help the blood carry oxygen to the skin cells, and aids in the formation of collagen. A deficiency of it leads to an older appearance. Take at least one gram(1,OOO mg) a day.

Riboflavin helps prevent large pores. When it’s insufficient, young people are susceptible to black-heads and older people to wrinkles around the mouth.The sulfur-containing amino acids are important to hair and skin. You can get them from protein-rich foods, and from Brussels sprouts, lentils and onions.I believe every cosmetic should contain some amount of vitamins A, C and E. Even if only a small amount is absorbed into the skin and utilized by the skin cells and the blood, continual use will improve the skin and hair from the inside out, as well as from the outside.

diet hanola mine

More commonly knov~n by its abbreviation, DEA, diethanolamine is one of many synthetic detergents. Like TEA (triethanolamine),it may be contaminated with nitrosammnes and should be avoided. See nit rosamines and alkyloamides.

alkyloamides.

diethylene glycol

This synthetic glycerin is used as a humectant, solvent and surfactant. Kidney, liver and central nervous system damage can result from oral doses of less than one ounce of this toxic chemical.

diethyl phtha late

This colorless, odorless ester is used as a solvent in perfumes, a plasticizer in nail polishes, as an insect repellent and as afixative. This synthetic chemical can irritate the mucous membranes, and absorption through the skin can cause depression of the central nervous system, leading to unconsciousness and coma.

digestive

In herbology, a substance that helps digestion.

dihydroxyacetone

This synthetic chemical, which contains acetone, is used in quick-tanning products to dye the skin brownish-orange. What it does when it’s absorbed into the body is unknown. Since it alters skin, it should have a drug status, and its FDA approval should be questioned.

diisocetyl adipate

This synthetic compound of hexadecyl alcohol and adipic acid is used as buffer.

dilauryl thiopropionate

This synthetic compound of laurvl alcohol and 3,3’-thiopropionic acid is used as antioxidant. Also see pro pionic acid.

dimethicone

This silicone fluid is used to give a smooth feel to a cosmetic cream or lotion. Silicones were very popular during the 1960’s, but various allergic reactions and internal problems make them questionable as cosmetic ingredients. Although they’re still widely used, they should be avoided. Many herbal oils, such as vegetable glycerine, can easily replace this chemical.

dimethoxane

This dioxin compound is used to preserve cutting oils, reszn emulsions, water-based paints and as a gasoline additive; in cosmetics, it’s used at concentrations of 0.100. Dioxin products are toxic and a danger to the environment. Its trade name is Dioxin Co.

dimethyloldimethyihydantoin

This toxic compound, which contains 17.7%formalde-hyde, is used as a preservative in detergents, shampoos , cream conditioners and hand creams in concentrations from 0.15%, and against yeast and molds at concentrations of 0.4%. (As with most formaldehyde products, it has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, but higher concentrations are needed against fungi.)It can be listed on labels as DMDM hvdantoin, but this doesn’t tell consumers who want to avoid formaldehyde that this is a formaldehyde product.A non ionic liquid with a formaldehyde odor, it’s soluble in water and is compatible with anionics, cationzcs, nonionics and proteins. Its trade names are Dantoin 5500 solution, DMDMH 55 and Glydant. It’s often combined with parabens and inorganic salts like S-chloro-2-methvl4-iso-thiazoline-3-on and 2-methyl4-iso- thiazoline-3-one (Kathon CG). See formaldehyde.

diphenolic acid

This aromatic alcohol is used as a surfactant and interrriediate in cosmetics. It’s a sx’nth etic phenolic corn-pound that’s irritating to skin, eyes and mucous membranes, and it should be avoided.

diphenylene sulfide

This toxic phenolic compound is used as an antiseptic.

disinfectants

Disinfectants free the surfaces on which they’re used from infection; they usually destroy vegetative matter and harmful organisms. Essentials oils (like lavender oil) sometimes have disinfectant properties. See the herb chart in Chapter 2.

disodium monococ-laureth

This syntheticfatty acid alcohol (plus sodium) is used as a dispersant and a surfactant, usually in shampoos. lt can cause allergic reactions, is harmful to the environment and should be avoided. Also see fatty alcohols.

dispersant

An agent that helps one substance disperse into another, and/or that helps stabilize such a dispersion.

diuretic

A substance that increases urination.

DMAE

See PABA.

DMDM hydantoin

See Dantoin 685 and dimethyloldimethylhvdantoin.

dolomite

This naturally occurring mineral is used as an abrasive in cosmetics. It consists of calcium magnesium carbonate, but it can be contaminated with other substances and heavy metals, so it should be avoided.

domiphen bromide

This quaternary ammonium salt is used as an antiseptic and as a preservative.

Draize test

This test, devised in 1959 by J. H. Draize, is used extensively by the chemical and cosmetic industry to test the eye-irritancy of chemicals. The chemical to be tested is dripped into one eye of a rabbit but not the other (which serves as a control).

The rabbit is held in a device that prevents it from shaking its head or scratching the eye that’s been doused with the chemical. Albino rabbits are used because their tear ducts are less efficient than those of other rabbits at washing the irritating chemical away. The Draize test is used to torture many millions of animals every year; the statistics derived from their suffering end up on technical data sheets that are used to sell cbemicals to companies that manufacture cosmetics and other products.

drug

According to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (as amended), the term drug means:

a. articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, the official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, the official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them

b. articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in human beings or other animals

c. articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of human beings or other animals

Cosmetic manufacturers aren’t allowed to use any labeling (including product brochures, which are also considered labeling) that suggests that their products are drugs—that is, that they’re therapeutic, will cure disease, or will alter a body function.

dryness of skin and hair

Dry skin is flaky, dull-looking and feels too tight; dry hair is lusterless, fly-away and straw-like. Dryness of the skin or hair can be caused by insufficient essential fatty acids in the diet, or by hair- and skin-care products that strip away natural oils or inhibit the body’s ability to re-oil itself after washing or shampooing.

It’s best to use a moisturizer on your skin and a conditioner on your hair, regardless of the soap, cleanser or shampoo you use.

 


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Skin Anatomy and Physiology Acne Ingredients Cosmetics
Dictionary of Skin Care Terms Skin Care Advice Skin Problems
The Sun & Your Skin Skin Care News  


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